Pakistan’s history of recognizable “human society” begins further back than those of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Our Mehergardh, discovered by French archeologists, is the oldest site discovered so far of any ancient social order. Previously, our Kot Diji was considered as the oldest.
Further down in history, Dravidians occupied the area. Where they came from, is not known, but evidently they were far superior to the earlier people whom they had displaced. They settled along the Indus River and founded a distinct civilization which comprised of about 400 cities, the capital of which was Moen-jo-Daro.
These cities were pre-planned and well laid out, reflecting a social order, education and economic prosperity. Moen-jo-Daro had such street blocks, water distribution and sewerage systems as could be the envy of many towns of today. High civic order was prevalent and there was a general concern for all classes of its inhabitants. These people were adept in agriculture and handicrafts which sustained their commerce which included exports to and imports from Central Asia as well as the Arab World.
The Dravidians were overtaken by the Aryans who had migrated from Central Asia in 3 groups. While one group settled in our region, the other two groups settled in Iran and in Europe. They spoke a language which later evolved into Sanskrit. The first group had settled first in Afghanistan and later crossed the Khyber Pass and drove the Dravidians southward into the Deccan Peninsular.
Several groups of invaders came from Central Asia, conquering our north and went back after looting the local wealth and destroying properties and lives. The Arabs first came in the Umayyad Era first as sea-faring traders and then as conquerors. From Europe came Alexander the Great but left, leaving behind, in our North, his people now known as Kafir Kalash. The later invaders, the Mughals, stayed behind and ruled over what they conquered. The remained in power in the sub-continent for seven centuries until they were overtaken by the British who came as traders but ruled here for over two centuries.
Thus, race after race of people came to this subcontinent from the North and West. A new kingdom had come into power every second century until 1947 when the British were made to quit and Pakistan came into being.